Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Ethnography Project


Environment and Human Adaption
The Abelam tribe lived in the east Sepik Province of the Papua New Guinea; this was located on the foothills. There were two different zones that the Abelam tribes lived in the relict alluvial plains. These characterized for these zones are landforms altitudes, annual rain falls, and soil types for thick secondary vegetation. They live in a very hot and humid areas, they have adapted to these area s time went by, with rain falls they created shelter, and with the heat there skin help them in that department. From what my research had told me, is that they lived in a rural setting, because they are indeed a population of 70,000 people, and a large range of farming, because the Abelam are big yams people. They are a more isolated culture, when it comes to other types of tribes, for example: say Indians. They eat pigs, and chicken, animal that can be raised and killed, but they do hunt for variety of animals. They always grow crops such as: giant yams, sweet potatoes, and even bananas. The heat and rain are the main two that they have adapted to. Heat was a major one because how they are outside most of the time, and the sunrays, so as time went on their skin helps with the heat. Rain was another because how they needed to learn how to keep their crops from becoming no good. So they build shelter for the animal, the villagers, and also the safely of the crops.

One physical adaptation I noticed are there thick black hair, for having such thick black hair, I really thought this would be hard in the heat but to come to find out it help from the heat. It is actually cooler for the scalp, and keeps it from getting burnt. The second is there skin, now I never knew that black skin actually helps them from the sunrays, but they must get hot and sweat, because black is attracted to the sun. One culture adaption would be there hunting, without some of the meat they get they could feel blah, I mean just eating crops is no good, some meat you need. The Second one is gardening, I believe they spend at least 12 hours a day just on there garden, planting or just going through it make sure everything is in ship shape. The third is that there giant yams, they take such good care of there yams, because they believe the big the better, has more spiritual power inside.



Language and Gender Role
The Ndu languages are the most common language used for the family of the Sepik. The Ndu stands for “man, ” and this language was made up from the family Kirschbaum in 1922. There are about 45,000 speakers that know the Abelam language, but for the people on the outside know this language as latmul. The Ndu has about twelve languages all together and some are: Latmul, Ngaia, Manambu, even Abelam, etc. It depends on what tribe you are with because these languages are still in use. Yes, there is in fact a written language to all twelve languages, which if they needed it to stay in contact with someone they could.

From the last time I checked there was only two genders and that is a female and a male. The man takes care of the hunting, and preparing meat products, the women cook, take care of the kids, laundry. They both work on the garden so they are mainly a team at what they do. Use hunting for a example, it is not a women’s job to hunt for there meat, only because we are sensitive in some situations. I honestly think that a man doing laundry wouldn’t work either. There could be people that looks down at that person, because it’s not in there natural, or could be cast down from the tribe. The father or the man of the family will, teach the young child at a age about 8 years old were the brain is like a sponge and remember the route. A young age is a good age because of by time the child is a man, will know exactly what to do. Yes, I believe that she would be because she is the right protagonist for this culture. She would be great a participating in there daily activities.



Subsistence and Economy
A traditional pattern, there yams, though is such a big deal to their culture, the yams are a very spiritual, and the bigger they are. I f the yams were to disappear, I really feel like that would mess up the culture. Some of them are seasonal and one is all year long, the bananas are all year all, and the yams and sweet potatoes are seasonal. There are meat sources also, but that depends on how much they hunt. Yes, everyone in the tribe needs to help with the garden, exceptionally the yams, because they are the most important item to the culture. That isn’t dividing into sex, age, and/or social class; it’s more of work together time of thing for the culture. My culture grows their crops, and hunts their meat, but grows more than hunt. They all work hard to get the food they need. The one food that is hard to take care of is the yams, because they are easy to mess up, or get ruined, that’s why they spend so much time on them.

They all work to get the food that they want; they don’t need to get their food from a store, or anything like that. I honesty don’t think they are around anything to buy anyways. Well the men have there labor that is specialized in and the women are specialized in there’s. Men hunt, women clean those are perfect examples. The yams are good and it shows wealth if it is grown the biggest out of everyone else.



Marriage and Kinship
The Abelam tribe does the polygyny marriage, where if the man wants more than one wife he can have it. When they marry, and the wife owns her own pigs, she still has to ask her husband to sell it. When you have multiple wives, cooking has to be done separate. The parents do not pick them for them, when they start there menstruation, that is ay they need to go out and start getting interesting and finding men or boy who they are interested in. There is on exchange that they do, and I like to call it the sister exchange, this when the father’s sister and the brother in law’s sister exchange. Well it seems like that male have more of a variety of open relationship.  This culture does use endogamy, all there marriage is in the particular group which is there own, there is enough people in the village to go around, and not inbreed or anything. There is not a practiced pattern, since you can get a divorce and find another women to marry. Uncalled for that doesn’t happen in this culture as a matter of fact I don’t think they even would try that, because the tribe would most likely cast you out of the tribe.
                              
The only thing that descent would go on in this tribe would be the sister exchange but nothing that has to do with uncle and aunts, or cousins. The only time you would be in kin relationship is if you aren’t married or if you going to get a divorce, and you have to stay at your parent’s house. They don’t ignore they are just not in the relationship part; they like to be new family, and not just in the family. The father or the brother in law, and the reason for this is the sister exchange.  Inheritance is patrilineal organized. This concerns mainly landownership and clan membership though there are many exceptions that give rise to disputes. Most likely father and brother would be under father, and sister and mother would be under mother, since there are multiple wives.



Social and Political Organization
The Abelam tribe is a more general egalitarian, they treat each other equally, and everyone has access to power, and though would be the yams, each person has a chance to grow the biggest yam, not just one individual. Yes, they all have the opportunity, to have equal society and well my tribe is very good with that, how they work together, men hunt with other men, and women clean with other women. Everyone has the oppurtunity to grow the big yam to have the most power.

Ok this might sound funny, but its all about the yams, the bigger the yam the more power you have and then you give it to your enemy and pretty much have a comptition, with him for next season. The biggest yam is about 80 to 90 inches, its a well good and healthy yam, if its that big or even bigger. As the season goes someone new will have the power or the same, it depends every year. It really depends on that person and how well they can take care of their yam. To us we have money and to them a yam shows responsibility in this tribe, and sometimes money doesn’t make everyone rich in same places. No one really contains, the law, but every tribe has a chief, and I am pretty sure they have a chief who makes the rules. Each punishment is different for each crime down, you could get beaten, killed, or even banished, depending on the situation.

I believe that punishment is meant, and violate is not meant to happen. One would be if someone stole something from someone, this would result in a fight or even to death, and if someone kills but didn’t mean to then the chief would there for make a punishment for them which would be positive because the chef said it was ok. Another one would be, just an agreement over something, then could go wrong, which would be negative, but when the chief comes in and sets a punishment because of there action, that’s ok. Every action you make can and will affect anyone in any ways, and if it were bad a bad result would be bad, if its good a positive would come good.



Belief System and The Art
The most religious belief the have is the korambo and the grounds its on they call the amei. The korambo is a ceremonial house, and the amei is stand for the ceremonial grounds. This is, were there rituals are where they deal with the circle of life. This will hold, when girls and there first menstruation, and dealing with marriage. Another would be a death ritual; this is where they leave the body for a whole day and night. My culture was monotheistic, because they really just believe in their spirits; this is like there god, and their name is Ngwallndu spirits. They were around 5,000 to 6,000 years ago and was flooded with sea water and about 1,000 years ago, from what little people they had moved westward toward the Ndu family, which is where is all started. The same ritual that was held in the Korambo was where they held their death rituals, which was very unique. They left their bodies out for a whole day and night, so that the Ngwallndu spirit could come and take them, to their heaven. This is very important, because there girls becoming a women, and the death being then there right full resting place, so I really don’t think they would function with out it.

The Abelam has an artwork of paint; they see their paint as a magical as a substance, that’s like they are being given a woodcarving. They feel like it become powerful and active, which is a metaphor for it being a magical substance. The Abelam music is like an Oceania, that is played with fine flute music for solo and ensembles, as well as other wind music a fine flute and wind music. Not much of performer they are, but there religious arts are what they do at the korambo, all there religious arts are held the and everything they do is in a helping way for there people.



Culture Change
The most affected culture toward the Abelam would be the Western Culture. The Western culture is trying to bring there own rituals, and traditions to the Abelam tribe, and by this happening the negative impact is going to be losing the traditions and rituals that the Abelam tribe has grown toward, and grew up by. The positive impact that might come from this is that the Abelam might learn something new, but they will always keep their own rituals, and traditions.
There will always be something good, and something bad that comes in any situation. The most things that the Abelam could be influence is that by the Western Culture coming in, the Abelam could lose their identity. By this happening, the information about them isn’t well known. This culture could become a market economy, as time goes on. This could take time because of how small they our but their food supplies could indeed get them in that direction.



Sources

http://www.everyculture.com/Oceania/Abelam.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1039/Abelam
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abelam_people
http://www.art-pacific.com/artifacts/nuguinea/yammasko.htm
http://www.uh.edu/~jcrowder/Abelam_Scaglion.pdf

Sunday, July 22, 2012

ART


1.      A) Most of the carving or in other words painting, tell their adventures, of hunting, and fight, there most great times. This was mainly for their children to hear, and then their children’s, children, but what they didn’t know is that, we would find them and carries out there stories and great adventures.



B) Because the most times they had was hunting, and even rituals they did, in some cultures. These are their way of keeping track of things they did, not everyone had paper like we have know.



C) Well we know they don’t have paper, and that they were very out going, like to hunt animal. Writing down there great moments. Exceptionally they had a lot of adventures. It was amazing, how they told their stores through a wall with paint they are very creative.



D) They use things in different was which made it amazing for example: One painting was painted by spraying pigment to draw and the pigment was isolated and joined together, that was the one used the most and some were carved etc.



E) There was carving, using a brush, and they even used horns from a bull. By using the horn of the bulls it created doting that was applies with a swap. The carving the outline of the picture which was the start of the picture, and which leaves the brush, which gave it that special look of color



2.      Now and these days we use vary types of things to create art such as: pencils, pens, pastels, paint, and carvings. Back then they were very limited on what they could use. They used what they could find, unlike us we go and buy it, someone created it, and it wasn’t from natural things, like nature. The number one thing is the carvings, back then people carved wood, rock, and now they still do the same thing, carving stone, wood, this has been going on for many generations.



3.      A) These requires pencil, pen, marks, and/or crayons, which ever set your mood that moment, like for me I think using a pencil. This communicates emotions, dreams, just in the mood for being creative.



B) It doesn’t matter what time you are in their will always my painting that is telling you something. The painting on ancient walls, tell us there stories, the carvings from the Egyptian, tell, us there rules, and how they live, or now what I see is when we draw its what we right there think about, we don’t stop and think about what we write, we just know. Every drawing has his or her own language written in the paint or even right there saying hello.



C) When you draw something it make that culture proud, give a sense off, about there own culture. There are some drawings that are telling harmful things, but its how that person is reading it. For example: Egyptians written and drawn about executions, some people felt that was hurtful, and it was harming.



Sunday, July 15, 2012

Politics & Violence


1. The Yanomamo is a deeper for punishment then the western cultures. Yanomamo, if you kill that will result in death as long as you are a non-unokais, then you could be punished death. If you just take a crime there are little punishments that, would not be death as the problem solver. The western is just more easy, would it comes to punishment, if you kill or do something that, was mad enough then you would be hung, and if it was just something simple it would be a night or a couple days in jail.

2. Revenge killing to some people makes them feel good about a problem that had happened, and the grieving of someone dying in the family, or if people know what you do to women, and look down at you and treat you different, this can cause someone you going crazy. Not crazy as in killing the whole culture, but just that feeling of revenge. If someone kills someone you love like a family member a close one like parents, sibling, or your child, the pain for it to go away for that individual would be revenge, but by going and killing that person, its going to feel the same with that person family. Now some people learn to just deal, and anger is only there, and some poeple has to get even.

3. The benefit of being a unokais is that you will not be called a murder, in fact you will be called, “warrior hero.” To become a unokais you have to kill people, but for your own protection, there is a ceremony held in the morning, to make sure that the people that you kill, there spirit doesn’t come after you, this is actually for your own protection. OK, so the unokais you always have to kill if you want to stay a unokais, if you are a non- unokais and you kill someone you are called a murderer. If you don’t want to keep killing then you are a non-unokais, and will be punished for the murder of someone. If you are a unokais and there is a revenge that you want to successed, you will not be in trouble, but a hero, instead of non-unokais with you would be punished.

4. The law and/or who ever is in charge, has to make sure that no one gets out of line. The only problem with this is that the one who makes the rules and laws, don’t see everything going on. These structures could cause a lot of problems. If everyone was just organized and had a great status of a social life, this could keep the heat down. The only thing is the unokais still kills, and it cause be a little problem to some people, but was something they believed in and its legal. The Yanomamo if very kin with their family, and very protective if anything were to happen. Even if they have multiple wife’s they would still take care of each only, and also there young ones. This way there is so much revenge, because if a loved one had been died revenge would be the first thought on their mind. The Yanomamo can have multiple wives if they wish, but some men only want one. The great thing about this culture is they all have a perfect amount of children, which is good there population is in good stands.

5. Well, “anti-social,” is a great word to use, when something dramatic happens like a death in the family, some people don’t know how to had the depression, they start ignoring people they just want to be alone but they only problem with that is, this usually results in a bad end, ether they will commit suicide or get revenger, but this how they handle it. By having laws even though some people do it anyways, this still gives some people relief, them feeling safe in away. By having the law if someone does kill, or do a small crime, the other people know that, that one person will hopefully learn its lesson, or get the punishment what they deserve. This is just showing everyone that these aren’t a game and they will do something about it.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Kinship and Analysis


(1)
The interviewee I had chosen is my Uncle Mario, he was born in Oaxaca in Mexico, in August 13th 1957. Uncle Mario was born in another country it was a hard life for my uncle, exceptionally when he came to the United States. Thing were always hard for him even in the town he was raised in, which is Oaxaca in Mexico, because having to kill his own animal to eat and grow is own crops, and also work for not as much money as you would get in the United States, made thing harder. It was also hard because he gave money to his mom. When he knew what would better him and his family he came to the United States, got two jobs and they were full time, had a little studio, but even money he got he would sent most of it to is family in Mexico. The biggest accomplishment he made was learning English, he knew his Spanish very well, but English was difficult and he accomplished it. One thing that even amazed me is that when getting house is such a big difference from here, because in Mexico all you have to do his by your property and build your house you never have rent. Water comes by and they fill up your water tank and when you run out, you just call and fill it up again. My uncle Mario told me,” No matter what I have been through, this always make me feel good about being a Mexican.”

(2)
This made me feel proud, of what hard workers they’re are, and not only that but how dedicated they are to there families. Most of the time thoughts just kept going, proud, brave, hard working, and please tell me more because of how interesting this all sounds. No, not uncomfortable, but very comfortable because this is my families history things I never knew, and what my ancestors did for the family, and by being such a great family it makes me happy with where I come from inside. No, it didn’t it just made me respect my family more and to never judge them in any way, of how they were so long ago. If I wasn’t Mexican this would most likely make me feel weird, in such a case like, "oh my gosh, you had to kill an animal just to eat ewww," but I would think it and not say it only because of the different culture and not being use to the other culture.

(3)
We are such a big family we ALL stay in touch whether we are in the United States or in Mexico. My parents call Mexico all the time and except the charges just for the family. My parents even fly out there to see them twice a year. I know that my parent send money to my dads mother. Everyone gets along because we are lovers not haters. Emphasis is on the paternal line the most, only because there are more younger adults like myself, then older people, now I’m not saying I don’t talk to them just not as much as the paternal line. The older people we will say like me I am 23 years old, I look after them and try to keep them out of harms way, and they are fun to wrestle with. The older or younger never call each other names or blame anyone for anything, it’s just not like us and we all have been raised like that. NP never have we had ethnic difference toward each other after all we are all Mexican and we know how are people feel, we great along really good.


(4)
Yes, I know them both well, because I do go to Mexico at least once every two years, I know not a lot but its something. I don’t socialize equally with them other because I see more of my dads side of the family, so I socialize with them more, but when I see my mothers side of the family I still socialize, with what time I can. My mother would, not my dad, but yup my mom, only because its her word or no words kind of thing and me and my brothers just learn to live with it, or there would just be a problem. Yes, because my aunts seem to have the issue, like they don’t want know one new in the family. See after sometime they finally will warm up to that new member of the family, it just takes some time. Yes, because women should be treated sensitively in situations, like get wasted, if another guy comes around them, in other words they are protected A LOT.I have learned what my family had to do to survive in there time or what country they went to, not just that but how we stuck together as a family and didn’t rip each other apart when time got tough. I feel really happy with what family I have and what I have around me.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Hunter-gatherer and Agriculture/ Economic and Trade


Part 1:
            Even through hunter-gatherers has been around for millions years, they have been very successful in all these years, with being so good with hunting. They drove most pray species to extinction. Not only great hunting skills, but also they survived through dramatic climate change, for example: The Ice Age. Agriculture became very helpful, by giving people a chance, to settle in one area. This was great because now the people could give up the nomadic life.  That’s not all though, it gave of a train reaction, of learning hands on labor on how to grow crops, build homes, and a new lifestyle. With this new lifestyle the cultures population grew larger. A hunter-gather seemed tough with all there hunting experience, but they hunted more than they grew crops, and by putting most animal species extinct, it became harder to find food, which results into moving place to place. The Agriculture in away is good but also has their downfalls. When agriculture finally settled down in one location, to be able to grow crops, they needed more room. By moving, or taking down the forest
Tress, bushes etc., this has caused erosions. The agriculture would have the best diet, because not only did they have meats such as (small mammals, deer, box turtle, elk etc.) but also had crops such as (corn, beans, and squash). The hunter-gatherer had mostly meat, not much of crops. Well about 12,000 years ago when agriculture took place was because the climate changed dramatically. When settling in a more livable environment and the population starting growing, that’s when agriculture was used more because people liked that environment, and they wanted to stay within that area. After the population was so big, moving around many people would become more of a problem.


Part 2:
            This consists of exporting and importing goods. Surplus and trade are a team organization, if surplus is positive then there exporting more than importing, but if they were trading then this would be negative, which is usually called “trade gap.” The goal in this organization is to have goods and services balance, by making sure they were divided. Two social benefits of trade would be (1) communication, and (2) Technology, just with these two so much has the trading organization grown and accomplished. Asia’s growing demand with the U.S., because major trading drivers were using communication, and computers (technology) goods, to me, to be brought productions up for the better, not just Asia but the U.S. also. Two negative social benefits would be: (1) cheaper labor, and (2) lower standards. Negative impacts of trade can encourage production in areas with cheap labor and or lower standards. For example: child labor and sweatshops in China and India. The agriculture has developed in so many ways like the replacement of human labor, from when hunting and growing crops, unlike now meat is killed for us and soled to us in stores and the same goes for crops. The development of trade has changed so dramatically since 12,000 years ago exceptionally exporting and importing their goods. Their goods had to be transported by animal and people walking to their distance.

SOURCES:
Part1:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunter-gatherer
http://www.raw-food-health.net/HunterGatherers.html
http://www.earth360.com/diet_paleodiet_balzer.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture
http://www.globalharvestinitiative.org/Documents/Motes%20-%20Modern%20Agriculture%20and%20Its%20Benefits.pdf
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092180099700579X

Part 2:
http://www.surplustrading.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balance_of_trade
http://jobs.utah.gov/ui/jobseeker/tradeact.asp
http://yourknowledge.hubpages.com/hub/Globalization-The-Benefits-of-Trade
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_and_development
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_agriculture




Thursday, June 28, 2012

Speaking and Symbolic Language


Part 1
             
Yes, it was very difficult because the urge to talk was on my mind the whole time. Just hearing there story about what they did that night, I just wanted to show them how interested I was, and their reaction to me not responding made me feel like I wasn’t interested. By them looking t me like I need help, the best way I could show them I was listening, I had to look at them directly in there eyes and smile, which probably sent them a message that I was weird. It was funny when I was looking at them and smiling, they would smile back with a look on there face saying look at this guy how weird is he, I could tell, their facial expression was funny. The one with most advantage would be the one who could speak, only because with speaking your able to get more information about anything out, then when all you have to communicate is symbolic language. The culture that can speak can act in many different ways, they could understand and get the drift of what they are talking about, or the worst can take place and not understand, or take it the wrong way. This depends on how well they get what they are talking about. Well first off say you were working a customer service job and someone would come in that deaf, at first they are trying to talk to you and you have no idea what to do, and your first instinct would be looking at them and lip talking to where no words are coming out of your mouth. Then you get deaf people who have been there and done that, so they are prepared and have paper and a pen, that way they just write down what they need, they know what to expect in these situations.

Part 2
           
This was indeed difficult only because my friend or “conversation partner,” was like, “why are you talking like a robot?” I said, “Nothing I am just blah.” Not being able to use a tone in my voice people kept thinking something was wrong. That saying, “what’s wrong,” was so annoying, but I had to hold in the reason why, with no tone. My conversation partner wasn’t mad, but by his symbolic language, I got the feeling he felt awkward, and a little uncomfortable. We finished the 15 minutes, but he finished his story. When I explained the assignment, he said I was weird and laughed. Having tones and symbolic Language can tell a lot about someone, from their emotions to their personality. For example: when my conversation partner called me weird, and laughed, I didn’t take that offensive because he was smiling and laughing while he said it. I f he did smile or laugh I might have taken it the wrong way. I believe there are people who have trouble reading body language, when it comes to someone who aren’t use to it. Say a deaf person would look at someone who speaks and not understand their body language, then which a person who speaks looking at someone who is deaf and not understanding there body language. If there was a day, say you were cleaning your house and was really busy on a tight schedule, and someone came up to you and asked you a question, then you responded, not meaning it in a mean way but that’s how it sounded those are moment we wish wouldn’t happen but it does.

Part 3
           
Yes, but it would have not been as fun as it was, just experimenting different languages made this assignment fun. Written language would have made it to easy. What would have been the point if we could use written language, only because written language can tell a lot. One really neat advantage is when cultures would write there stories of there life and adventures but not with words, but pictures, they use this methods because when the children were growing up, they would sit with them telling the stories using the pictures. I do believe drawing pictures on rocks is another method of a written language. Written language has done a lot through the years, forms drawings in caves, telling us they’re hunting and adventures, also Aztecs and Mayans, with there creative calendars. We have learned the way of other people’s lives from their schools, to food, celebrations, religions, and sacrifices, all because it was written down. The poor to the rich was even documented. Just learning even the different languages from using written language, we as people has grown around the form of written language. Language is amazing from the past, present, and the future. Who knows, so many years from now people will look at our written, spoken, and symbolic language and enjoy it, like we have through all these years.